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Kassabonnen, treinkaartjes en uw gezondheid?*
Thermisch papier, dat gebruikt wordt voor o.m. kassabonnen en treinkaartjes blijkt volgens onderzoek veel bisphenol te bevatten. In dit geval bisphenol S (BPS) een vervanger van het bisphenol A (BPA) dat wellicht nog ongezonder is dan (BPA). 16 verschillende papiersoorten, zowel nieuw als recycled werden onderzocht. In alle soorten werd BPS gevonden. BPS kan door de huid opgenomen worden en het lijkt erop dat BPS wel 19x meer toegepast wordt dan BPA.
Widespread Exposure to BPA Substitute Is Occurring from Cash Register Receipts, Other Paper
People are being exposed to higher levels of the substitute for BPA in cash register thermal paper receipts and many of the other products that engendered concerns about the health effects of bisphenol A, according to a new study. Believed to be the first analysis of occurrence of bisphenol S (BPS) in thermal and recycled paper and paper currency, the report appears in ACS' journal Environmental Science & Technology.
Kurunthachalam Kannan and colleagues point out that growing evidence of the potentially toxic effects of BPA has led some manufacturers to replace it with BPS in thermal paper and other products. BPS is closely related to BPA, with some of the same estrogen-mimicking effects, and unanswered questions exist about whether it is safer. Nevertheless, very little is known about BPS occurrence in the environment, the scientists noted. To fill that knowledge gap, they analyzed 16 types of paper from the U.S., Japan, Korea and Vietnam.
The study detected BPS in all the receipt paper they tested, 87 percent of the samples of paper currency and 52 percent of recycled paper. The researchers estimate that people may be absorbing BPS through their skin in larger doses than they absorbed BPA when it was more widely used -- 19 times more BPS than BPA. People who handle thermal paper in their jobs may be absorbing much more BPS.
The authors acknowledge funding from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Department of Science and Technology of Shandong Province.
As the evidence of the toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) grows, its application in commercial products is gradually being replaced with other related compounds, such as bisphenol S (BPS). Nevertheless, very little is known about the occurrence of BPS in the environment. In this study, BPS was analyzed in 16 types of paper and paper products (n = 268), including thermal receipts, paper currencies, flyers, magazines, newspapers, food contact papers, airplane luggage tags, printing paper, kitchen rolls (i.e., paper towels), and toilet paper. All thermal receipt paper samples (n = 111) contained BPS at concentrations ranging from 0.0000138 to 22.0 mg/g (geometric mean: 0.181 mg/g). The overall mean concentrations of BPS in thermal receipt papers were similar to the concentrations reported earlier for BPA in the same set of samples. A significant negative correlation existed between BPS and BPA concentrations in thermal receipt paper samples (r = −0.55, p < 0.0001). BPS was detected in 87% of currency bill samples (n = 52) from 21 countries, at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 6.26 μg/g (geometric mean: 0.029 μg/g). BPS also was found in 14 other paper product types (n = 105), at concentrations ranging from <LOQ to 8.38 μg/g (geometric mean: 0.0036 μg/g; detection rate: 52%). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BPS, through dermal absorption via handling of papers and currency bills, was estimated on the basis of concentrations and frequencies of the handling of papers by humans. The median and 95th percentile EDI values, respectively, were 4.18 and 11.0 ng/kg body weight (bw)/day for the general population and 312 and 821 ng/kg bw/day for occupationally exposed individuals. Among the paper types analyzed, thermal receipt papers were found to be the major sources of human exposure to BPS (>88%). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of BPS in paper products and currency bills.
Een studie laat ook al zien dat bij veel mensen BPS al in de urine te vinden is.
Bisphenol S in Urine from the United States and Seven Asian Countries: Occurrence and Human Exposures
Chunyang Liao †‡, Fang Liu †, Husam Alomirah §, Vu Duc Loi , Mustafa Ali Mohd , Hyo-Bang Moon #, Haruhiko Nakata ¶, and Kurunthachalam Kannan *†▼
† Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509, United States
‡ Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai, Shandong 264003, China
§ Biotechnology Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, 13109 Safat, Kuwait
Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Hanoi, Vietnam
Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
# Department of Environmental Marine Sciences, College of Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791, South Korea
¶ Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan
▼ International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China
As concern regarding the toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) grows, BPA in many consumer products is gradually being replaced with compounds such as bisphenol S (BPS). Nevertheless, data on the occurrence of BPS in human specimens are limited. In this study, 315 urine samples, collected from the general populations in the United States, China, India, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, and Vietnam, were analyzed for the presence of total BPS (free plus conjugated) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BPS was detected in 81% of the urine samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ; 0.02 ng/mL) to 21 ng/mL (geometric mean: 0.168 ng/mL). The urinary BPS concentration varied among countries, and the highest geometric mean concentration [1.18 ng/mLor 0.933 μg/g creatinine (Cre)] of BPS was found in urine samples from Japan, followed by the United States (0.299 ng/mL, 0.304 μg/g Cre), China (0.226 ng/mL, 0.223 μg/g Cre), Kuwait (0.172 ng/mL, 0.126 μg/g Cre), and Vietnam (0.160 ng/mL, 0.148 μg/g Cre). Median concentrations of BPS in urine samples from the Asian countries were 1 order of magnitude lower than the median concentrations reported earlier for BPA in the same set of samples, with the exception of samples from Japan. There were no significant differences in BPS concentrations between genders (male versus female), or among age groups (categorized as ≤19, 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, and ≥50 years), or races (Caucasian versus Asian). The daily intake (EDI) of BPS was estimated on the basis of urinary concentrations using a simple pharmacokinetic approach. The median EDI values of BPS in Japan, China, United States, Kuwait, Vietnam, Malaysia, India, and Korea were 1.67, 0.339, 0.316, 0.292, 0.217, 0.122, 0.084, and 0.023 μg/person, respectively. This is the first study to report the occurrence of BPS in human urine.