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Kalium helpt bij of tegen: 

Osteoporose

Hoge bloeddruk

Beroerte

Astma

Hartritme

 

Kalium helpt organen en systemen:

 

Hart

Skelet

Spieren

Zenuwstelsel

Ademhalingsorganen

 

Voedingsbronnen van kalium:

 

 Meloen

 Heilbot

 Champignon

 Johannesbrood

 Zalm

 Tonijn

 Koolrabi

 Cassave

 Cichorei

 Grote klit

 Veldzuring

 Granaatappel

 Melasse

 Lijnzaad

 Bruine bonen

 Varkensvlees

 Amsoi

 Suikermeloen

 Taro

 Kiwi

 Rabarber

 Brandnetel

 Agar-agar

Spirulina

Zure kers

Zoete kers

Sorghum

Knolraap

Zee groenten

Rucola

Erwtjes

Tofu

Watermeloen

Peren

Nectarine

Limoenen

Yoghurt

Pastinaak

Bietjes

Rode bessen

Macadamianoten

Wortelen

Papaja

Kool

Snijbiet

Mango

Tomaten

Pecannoten

Pistachenoten

Kaki

Noten

Sperziebonen

Nori

Chinese kool

Peultjes

Venkel

Mierikswortel

Chiazaad

Paardenbloem

Koffie

Mosselen

Gember

Aubergine

Pijnboompitten

Citroenen

Avocado

Appels

Sinaasappel

Blauwe bessen

Gedroogde pruimen

Artisjokken

Asperges

Brouwers gist

Paddestoelen

Selderie

Broccoli

Uien

Vijgen

Cashewnoten

Bananen

Yam

Spruitjes

Amandelen

Bloemkool

Linzen

Perziken

Kruisbessen

Aardappel

Vis

Rozijnen

Zwarte bessen

Grapefruit

Aardbeien

Sjalotjes

Dadels

Prei

Tuinboon

Yamboon

Geitenmelk

Alfalfa

Bakbanaan

Pindakaas

Citrusfruit

Stengelui

Boerenkool

Okra

Moerbei

Kwee

Zonnebloempitten

Azijn

Sesamzaad

Zeewier

Tarwe kiemen

Hazelnoten

Spinazie

Muesli

Melk

Ahornsiroop

Haver

Lychee

Meloen zaden

Courgette

Pompoenpitten

Mandarijnen

Savooienkool

Pompoen

Rogge

Kumquat

Quinoa

Ananas

Frambozen

Sla

Pruimen

MaÔs

Azuki bonen

Tarwe zemelen

Shiitake

Selderie zaadjes

Bramen

Brazilnoten

Sojabonen

Gerst

Aardpeer

Alfalfa spruiten

Druiven

Abrikozen

Tempeh

Walnoten

Olijven

Kastanje

Radijs

Bieslook

Salie

Mosterdzaad

Kurkuma

Knoflook

Komkommerkruid

Cayenne peper

Zwarte komijn

Pepermunt

Wilde marjolein

Boksdoorn

Kip

Kalkoen

Chili peper

Bruine rijst

Nepeta

 

Opmerkingen:

X Voeding rijk aan kalium lijkt volgens verschillende onderzoeken de kans op een beroerte duidelijk te verminderen.

X Voeding rijk aan kalium en magnesium zijn belangrijk tegen hoge bloeddruk, nog belangrijker dan natriumarme voeding (met weinig keukenzout).

X Dagelijks inname van wat kaliumbicarbonaat (zo ook kaliumcitraat) zorgt voor een meer basische zuurgraad in het lichaam en zo voor een betere botdichtheid. (Natriumbicarbonaat doet dat niet; in de nieren wordt het zuur waterstof ion samen met kalium afgegeven aan de urine in de nier tubulus, en natrium werkt in dat proces juist de verkeerde richting op.) Dit wordt nog eens bevestigd door een analyse van studies.

X Uit een studie blijkt dat voeding met meer groente en fruit, met minder zout, met meer kalium de kans op een chronische nierziekte duidelijk kan verminderen. Een hoge zout inname van gemiddeld 12 gram/dag verhoogt de kans dan weer duidelijk en de zoutinname reduceren tot 8 gram/dag deed de kans weer verlagen. Een verdere zoutreductie bleek geen extra effect te hebben. Meer kalium in de voeding deed de kans op nierproblemen ook weer duidelijk afnemen.

X Een Westers dieet zorgt dat veel zuren in het lichaam geproduceerd worden, die geneutraliseerd moeten worden waarvoor fosfaat nodig is. In de botten zit voldoende fosfaat in de vorm van calciumfosfaat en samen met het fosfaat wordt ook de calcium uit de botten gehaald om de zuren te neutraliseren. Bij het eten van veel groenten en fruit, rijk aan de kaliumzouten kaliumbicarbonaat en kaliumcitraat, is geen extra fosfaat nodig zodat de botten goed blijven en botontkalking en osteoporose tegengegaan wordt.

X Meer kalium in de voeding zorgt bij diabetes type-2 volgens onderzoek voor duidelijk minder hart- en nierproblemen.

X Voeding rijk aan kalium lijkt aderverkalking en vaatwandstijfheid tegen te kunnen gaan zo blijkt althans uit een laboratorium en muizenstudie. Voeding met weinig kalium zorgde in de studie voor duidelijk meer verkalking in de slagaders, terwijl voeding rijk aan kalium net een duidelijk afname van de verkalking liet zien.

 

X Voeding arm aan kalium doet de kans op diabetes duidelijk stijgen.

X Het regelmatig drinken van veel cola en wellicht ook andere frisdranken kan volgens onderzoek leiden tot te lage bloedwaarden kalium.

Voor gezonde mensen geldt een minimale bloedwaarde aan kalium van 3,5 mmol/l doch voor hartpatiŽnten dient deze waarden minimaal 4,0 mmol/l te zijn en dat is opletten bijv. als gevolg van het voorgeschreven gebruik van diuretica.

Deze waarden bereikt men door dagelijks voeding met 4,5 gram kalium te nemen.

Normaal verwijderen de nieren een teveel aan kalium en fosfor uit het lichaam. Bij nierproblemen kan dit niet goed werken waardoor er te veel kalium en fosfor in het bloed achterblijft. NierpatiŽnten kunnen daarom beter minder kalium- en fosforrijke voeding gebruiken. Dat is opletten met kant en klare voeding omdat daar volgens onderzoek steeds meer natrium (keukenzout) deels vervangen wordt door kalium.

 

Een goede verhouding tussen kalium en natrium in de voeding is 2:1 (In een westers dieet is deze verhouding vaak 1:3 !!!)

 

Goede bloedwaarden kalium liggen tussen 3,5 tot 5,1 mmol/l en liefst tussen de 4,0 en 5,1 mmol/l.
Omdat slechts 3% van de lichaamshoeveelheid kalium zich buiten de cellen (extracellulair) bevindt en als zodanig in het bloed gemeten kan worden kunnen de testwaarden wel eens afwijkend zijn van de echte waarden. Bijv. soms stroomt tijdens de bloedafname het bloed te snel of te langzaam in het afnamebuisje. Hierdoor gaan bloedcellen kapot en wordt het kaliumgehalte vals verhoogd. Ook het herhaaldelijk ballen van de vuist of onjuiste behandeling van het bloedbuisje (te warm, te lang onderweg naar het laboratorium, te ruw behandeld) veroorzaakt een vals verhoogde uitslag.

Een te hoge kaliumwaarde, dus hoger dan 5,1 mmol/l (hyperkaliŽmie) kan als mogelijke oorzaak hebben:

HyperkaliŽmie kan ook optreden bij sommige patiŽnten die bepaalde medicijnen slikken, zoals onder andere bloeddrukregulerende medicijnen, kaliumsparende plastabletten en het antibioticum Co-trimoxazol.

Een verlaagde kaliumconcentratie, dus lager dan 3,5 mmol/l (hypokaliŽmie) kan als mogelijke oorzaak hebben:

Bij mensen met suikerziekte kan het kalium dalen na toediening van insuline, met name wanneer de patiŽnt een tijdje slecht gereguleerd is geweest (langdurig te hoge of te lage bloedglucosewaarde).

Wanneer er plastabletten geslikt worden of corticosteroÔden, kan het kaliumgehalte te veel dalen. De dokter zal daarom regelmatig het kalium laten controleren.


Balance Sodium with Potassium for Good Health
Nature is all about balance. The human body, being naturally created, reflects this principle in every small aspect as well as in its main orchestration, the constant search for homeostasis. Yet mainstream doctors tend to overlook the primal theme of balance. They like to view each body part or system in isolation. They donít hear the symphony because they have chosen to examine only one note of the music. This approach produces some strange conclusions, one of which is that sodium is the culprit in hypertension, diabetes and heart disease.

The sodium-potassium connection

Sodium and potassium are essential dietary minerals and electrolytes, meaning that they dissociate into ions (charged particles) in solution, making them capable of conducting electricity. Normal body functioning depends on the right regulation of sodium and potassium both inside and outside of cells.

Sodium is the principal ion in the fluid outside of cells, while potassium is the principal ion in the fluid inside of cells. Sodium concentrations are more than ten times lower inside than outside cells, and potassium concentrations are about 30 times higher inside than outside cells. The concentration differences between potassium and sodium across cell membranes create an electrochemical gradient known as the membrane potential. A large portion of energy in the body is dedicated to maintaining sodium/potassium concentration gradients, underscoring the importance of the balance between sodium and potassium in sustaining life. Tight control of cell membrane potential is critical for heart function, as well as nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction.

In Western industrialized countries, the daily intake of sodium chloride (salt) is about three times higher than the daily intake of potassium. The balance or equilibrium so necessary for these minerals is not achievable through the typical dietary choices of Westerners. Studies are showing that the relative imbalance of this ratio in the Western world is positively correlated with hypertension, heart disease and diabetes.

Studies support the need for a balanced relationship between sodium and potassium

In a report from the Childrenís National Medical Center in Washington, DC, published in the journal Kidney International, researchers noted that chronic low potassium levels have been associated with a variety of lung disorders, kidney disease, and hypertension in both adults and children. However, the effects of potassium depletion on the rapidly growing infant have not been well studied. They designed their study to determine the effects of severe chronic dietary potassium depletion on blood pressure and kidney structural changes in young rats. Rats were fed either a control or a potassium deficient diet for 14 to 21 days. At the end of the period, blood pressure and renal activity was assessed. Then the remaining rats in each group were switched to a high salt diet or were continued on their respective control or potassium deficient diets for an additional six days.

Results indicated that the potassium depleted animals had significant growth retardation, kidney damage and lung injury. At week 2, potassium depleted rats had higher systolic blood pressure than control rats. Switching to a high salt, normal potassium diet resulted in further elevation of systolic blood pressure in the potassium depleted rats, which persisted even after the serum potassium levels were normalized.

Researchers concluded that dietary potassium deficiency per se increased blood pressure in young rats and induced salt sensitivity that may be involved in at least two different pathogenic pathways.

In another study, controlled trials including 2,609 people assessed the effects of increased potassium intake on high blood pressure. Increased intake resulted in small but significant blood pressure reductions in people with normal blood pressure, and larger reductions in people with hypertension. The blood pressure lowering effect was more pronounced in individuals with higher salt intakes.

A clinical trial involving 150 Chinese men and women with mild hypertension found that moderate supplementation of potassium resulted in a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure compared to controls. Researchers noted that the routine diets eaten by the participants were high in sodium and low in potassium.

A study from New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical Center reported in Hypertension investigated the role of intracellular potassium and other ions in hypertension and diabetes. They concluded that potassium depletion is a common feature of essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes, treatment of hypertension at least partially restores potassium levels to normal, and fasting steady-state potassium levels are closely linked to calcium and magnesium homeostasis.

In a review of literature at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, reported in Clinical Experimental Hypertension, researchers reported that evidence from animal experimentation, observational epidemiology, and randomized clinical trials strongly supports efforts to change nutritional factors in desirable directions, especially to lower dietary salt and increase potassium.

Clearly sodium is only one side of a two-sided equation. It is as necessary to body functioning as is potassium, but must be in balance with potassium to be effective. The traditional Western diet is high is sodium and low in potassium. Being told to reduce the amount of sodium consumed fails to acknowledge the need to raise potassium consumption until both minerals are balanced and equilibrium is reached in the fluid inside and outside of the cells.

Potassium and stroke

Several epidemiological studies have found that increased potassium intake is associated with decreased risk of stroke. A prospective study of 43,000 men found that men in the top 1/5th of dietary potassium intake were only 62% as likely to have a stroke as those in the lowest 1.5th of potassium intake. This inverse association was also seen in men with hypertension.

A prospective study of 5,600 men and women older than 65 years found that low potassium intake was associated with significantly increased incidence of stoke.

Potassium and osteoporosis

Cross sectional studies have reported significant positive associations between dietary potassium intake and bone mineral density in a wide age range of both pre-menopausal and postmenopausal women and elderly men. Bone mineral density was significantly associated with higher levels of potassium intake.

Potassium rich foods such as fruits and vegetables are also rich in precursors to bicarbonate ions, which buffer acids in the body. Our Western diet tends to be highly acidic. When the quantity of bicarbonate ion intake is insufficient to maintain normal pH, the body will mobilize alkalinizing minerals from bone to neutralize acids consumed in the diet and generated by metabolism. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables reduces the net acid content of the diet and preserves calcium and other minerals in the bones.

A study of 18 postmenopausal women found that potassium supplementation decreased urinary acid and calcium excretion, resulting in increased biomarkers of bone formation and decreased biomarkers of bone re-absorption. Studies have found that supplementing with potassium citrate decreased urinary acid excretion and biomarkers of bone re-absorption in postmenopausal women and ameliorated the effects of a high-salt diet on bone metabolism.

Potassium and kidney stones

Increased dietary potassium intake has been found to decrease urinary calcium excretion, a component in the development of kidney stones. Potassium deprivation has been found to increase urinary calcium excretion. A prospective study of more than 45,000 men followed for years found that those with high potassium intake were only half as likely to develop kidney stones as men whose intake was low. In a similar study involving women, those ingesting the highest amounts of potassium were found to be 65% less likely to develop kidney stones.

More actions of potassium in the body

Potassium regulates the beating of your heart. If you experience irregular heart beats, known as arrhythmias, your potassium levels may be low. Potassium also controls muscle functioning. It is the mineral that directs the transfer of nutrients through the cell membranes, a function that decreases with aging accounting for the circulatory damage, lethargy and weakness of old people.

Other signs of potassium deficiency

Warning symptoms of potassium deficiency include abnormally dry skin, acne, chills, cognitive impairment, constipation, depression, diarrhea, diminished reflexes, edema, nervousness, excessive thirst, glucose intolerance, growth impairment, hypoglycemia, high cholesterol levels, insomnia, low blood pressure, muscular fatigue, headaches, salt retention and hypersensitivity to salt, and respiratory distress. Hormone fluctuation may also result in reduced levels of potassium.

Use of diuretics or laxatives lowers potassium levels. Caffeine, tobacco and heavy sugar consumption reduce potassium absorption. Mental and physical stress can also lead to low potassium levels.

Sources of potassium

High amounts of potassium are found in fruits and vegetables, particularly potatoes, plums, prunes, raisins, bananas, tomatoes and tomato juice, orange juice, artichokes, lima beans, acorn squash, spinach, nuts and seeds, apricots, avocado and garlic. Other foods with substantial amounts of potassium are fish, meat, poultry, whole grains, yogurt, bee pollen, dulse, spirulina and chlorella.

Potassium is contained in multi-vitamin preparations although it may not be easily available to the body in this form. Potassium supplements are readily available as different salts such as potassium chloride, citrate, gluconate, aspartate, and orotate.

Your total potassium intake should equal your salt intake. You donít want to exceed this ratio with potassium any more than you do with salt. If you choose to use a potassium supplement, consider the amount of potassium it provides in the context of what you are eating that day. Itís probably wise not to exceed dosage indicated on the bottle unless you have a blood test to document a seriously low potassium level.

Sources:

Phyllis and James Balch, Prescription for Nutritional Healing.

Earl Mindell, Vitamin Bible for the 21st century

Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University

 

Algemene opmerking: 

 

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(25-09-2018)